Film Production Glossary

A

Advertising Goal

There are three different goals that any advertising campaign aims at, although one of them tends to take precedence:
Popularity: To introduce and distribute the product, service or company.
Information: To inform people about the product, service or company.
Image: To strengthen or change the popular image of a product, service or company.

Animatic

Animated sequence of static images, for example or that help visualizing and laying out ideas.

Author's Film

Author's Films are a movie genre which is desfined by the directors' high artistic freedom and influence when compared to other genres in which the producers normally hold the power to make final decisions. For example, author's film directors usually write the scripts for their movies themselves. Making an author's film is a huge challenge to any director as it requires vast knowledge and experience in many areas of artistic creativity.



B

Birger Mount

A Birger Mount is an intelligent mount that is able to influence the motors for focus and exposure in Canon lenses. A Birger Mount and a are needed in order to work with a digital Canon EF lens, which produces extraordinarily sharp and detailed pictures. In combination with a digital these lenses produce a better picture quality than "Zeiss high speeds" or "Zeiss super speeds". Unfortunately, it is not yet possible to determine focal ranges using a measuring tape when working with Canon lenses.

Blue Screen

Shooting a person or object in front of a blue screen makes it possible to remove the blue background and replace it with the desired real-life, virtual or painted backdrop in . The blue screen method is generally used when it is too expensive to shoot in the actual or the location does not exist. Besides blue there are also red, yellow and, most importantly, . It is possible to key out (remove) any color; however, blue or green screens are mostly used because these colors occur in human skin only to a small extent; if a blue object is shot in front of a blue screen it will appear transparent or disappear completely after keying. It is advisable to choose a green over a blue screen when working with a Red One, as Red Ones are more prone to noise on the blue than on the green channel.

Briefing

Project description by the client for the production company. In a briefing, the client provides information about their company, what they want to communicate, target audience, budget and schedule. The more detailed and accurate this information is, the stronger the initial concept will be. The briefing is a key stage in any commercial production as it conveys the client's marketing goal.

Briefing: Some of the points that are discussed in a briefing are:



C

Call Sheet

A call sheet provides information about the schedule and on each shoot day to and crew. Also, it provides a quick reference regarding weather forecast, sunrise and sunset, what scenes are being shot and general organization of the day. It usually also lists the phone numbers of members of crew and production.

Casting

Casting is the process of finding the most suitable actors for a production. A production company may hire a casting agency to do this or organize their own casting. Actors are cast by way of auditioning, photographs or demo videos. Many aspects need to be considered when casting for a production, therefore it is crucial to consult an experienced casting agent: they'll know if there are problems with actors that may lead to delays during production.

Cast

The term cast refers to the actors on a production.

Color Correction

Color correction is an important step in the post production of RED ONE footage. The RED ONE records in REDCODE . During color correction the white balance and color levels of the raw footage are adjusted. Crucial for color correction is the gradation graph. The RED ONE records linear images and therefore a linear gradation curve, aiming at being able to record as much information as possible. Owing to this, RAW footage does not look particularly attractive at first sight; only once the color is adjusted it presents itself in its full beauty.

Color Grading

Color Grading is the process of setting the final lighting and look once the footage has been edited. Often, the works closely with the color timer in order to convey his own vision.

Container Format

A container format is a data format that serves as a pool for various other formats, commanding the structure of how the content of the container is saved and stored. PDF is a well-known container format, while in the world of film and video the most widely accepted formats are AVI and MOV. Most often, container formats contain and join up video- and audio tracks. Containers may include different codecs, e.g. an AVI may include Xvid codec or MPEG-4 video and MP3 audio. WAV files usually contain uncompressed audio tracks. Also, there are container formats that may contain subtitles or menu structures.

Core Statement

The core statement summarizes the intentions and marketing goals of an advertising campaign and is developed by the agency or the production company. Its development is based on certain key questions, for example: Which quality of the advertised product is most highly valued by the customers? How should the product differ from competitors? What makes the product unique? What would convince the peer group of the product's quality? Out of these and other questions the core statement emerges. At first it is usually rough and imprecise, however, in its finalization it may even develop to become the campaign's slogan.



D

2D Effects

2D effects are, for example, captions or simple logo animations. They are created on computers using highly specialized software and may take a lot of time to complete.

3D Effects

3D effects are computer animations that are created in three-dimensional space. In very specific software the animator works with x, y and z axis.

DI - Director's Interpretation

The director's interpretation regarding the realization of a concept or story board.

Digital Cinema

Digital cinema is a film shot digitally in cinema quality, which requires the latest high end technology. The cinematographic aesthetics of digital cinema cannot be achieved with standard HD cameras. The Red One camera is digital cinema: Its pictures look like they would in a movie and not like a video film. In certain aspects, such as resolution, the Red One surpasses film cameras. It performes extraordinarily well in low-light conditions and is highly recommendable for blue and green screen work due to its reduced noise development. Digital cinema also allows working with a reduced depth of field, which requires a very large sensor/chip.

Digitizing

In modern days, almost any footage is digitized, no matter what format it was shot in. The footage is processed (edited, color graded etc.) digitally on a computer. This is another advantage of the Red One: It records directly onto a hard drive that can be attached to a computer easily without having to convert the footage.

Director's Cut

The director's cut (D.C.) is the director's version of the final cut. Often, especially in Hollywood, the first version to be published and distributed is not the one favored by the director. This is because producers enforce cutting out or changing scenes and often entire story lines on grounds of test viewers' reactions. The producers' financial and the director's artistic interest are often not concordant with each other.

DP / DoP

The director of photography is the head of the camera and lighting department. He is responsible for framing and lighting the scene and therefore one of the most important members of any film crew. A good DoP has gained extensive experience as a camera operator and has a very clear aesthetic vision.



E

Edit Suite

A computer running editing software, for example AVID or Final Cut Pro.



F

Fade

A possible transition between two shots - the first shot slowly fades into the next one, and for some time both pictures can be seen on top of each other before the first shot disappears completely.

Focal Length

The focal length of a camera lens describes the distance from the lens to the focal point. Together with the recording format the focal length determines the angle and perspective of a shot. A lens with a focal length that is approximately conform with the diagonal of the recording format is the standard lens for this format.

Focus Puller

The focus puller adjusts the focus of the lense before and during a shot. When working with a Red One, depending on the shot it is important that the focus puller stays with the camera, as he or she has to pull the focus with the Follow Focus. Especially when working with a small depth of field, when panning or when actors move away from or towards the camera one person is needed to concentrate exclusively on the focus.

Follow Focus

A device that allows the focus puller to adjust the focus easily and precisely.



G

Green screen

Shooting a person or object in front of a green screen makes it possible to remove the green background and replace it with the desired real-life, virtual or painted backdrop in . The green screen method is generally used when it is too expensive to shoot in the actual location or said location does not exist. Besides green there are also red, yellow and, most importantly, . It is possible to key out (remove) any color; however, blue or green screens are mostly used because these colors occur in human skin only to a small extent; if a green object is shot in front of a green screen it will appear transparent or disappear completely after keying. It is advisable to choose a green over a blue screen when working with a Red One, as Red Ones are more prone to noise on the blue than on the green channel.



H

H.264

H.264 is a highly efficient video compression standard that reduces bit rates by half of previous standards (MPEG-2) while maintaining image quality. The encoding efficiency of H.264 is high enough for use with high resolution material like HDTV, the downside being that the computing times required are up to three times higher than with older standards. The standardized data format is MP4.

Hamlet

Hamlet is the nick name for Octamas' Red One No. 419. Red users and especially "early adopters" have an intense relationship with their cameras. Having discovered the Red Ones early on we had to wait impatiently for a long time to have our cameras delivered. Our cameras were originally planned to be used for a feature film project that was inspired by John Everett Millais' painting "Ophelia". Also, William Shakespeare's masterpiece "Hamlet" contains paragraphs that are important to Octamas, plus, the stories of Hamlet and Ophelia partly match those of our cameras.

HD - High Definition

High resolution video material that offers wider ranges of color, exposures and contrasts than standard resolution. HD resolution: 1920 x 1080 pixels.



I

So far there are no references listed under I.



J

Jim Jannard

Jannard developed the revolutionary and radical Red One. He is known for a tendency towards uncompromising perfection. Having founded Oakley with only US$ 300 in 1975 he felt let down by the manufacturers of high resolution video cameras. What he really wanted was a digital film camera with the quality of a DSLR still camera. So in 2005 he decided to turn his passion into business and developed an ultra high resolution camera.



K

There are no references listed under K.



L

Light - Red One

The perfect light for the Red One is daylight, which is due to the fact that the RED tends to develop most noise on the blue channel as the sensor has fewer blue than red or green pixels. Tungsten lights also produce good results.

Lighting

Lighting is crucial when shooting on a Red One camera: expert lighting produces maximum quality of the footage.

Light - Color temperature

The color temperature of a light source is measured in Kelvin. The Red One sensor prefers temperatures between 5000 and 5600K. Below a list of different light sources and their color temperatures.

Candle: 1500K
Bulb 40W: 2200K
Bulb 60W: 2600K
Bulb 100W: 2800K
Bulb 200W: 3000K
Halogen light: 2600 - 3300K
Fluorescent lamps: 2700 - 4000K
LED lights: 2700 - 6000K
Thungsten light: 3200K
PAR Halogen light: 3200K
Xenon lamp: 4500 - 5000K
Morning/evening light: 5000K
Midday sun, cloudy: 5500 - 5800K
HMI/HMP metal vapor lamp: 6000K
Daylight when cloudy: 6500 - 7500K
Daylight when foggy/hazy: 7500 - 8500K
Blue sky (magic hour): 9000 - 12000K
Clear blue, northern daylight: 15000 - 27000K

Location

A location is where a shoot takes place.



M

Martial Arts Film

Martial Arts films are a movie genre which combine action with artistic performances of Asian martial arts, for example Kung Fu. The genre was especially popular in the 1970s, which was mainly triggered by the Bruce Lee movies.

Mastering

To finalize a film digitally.

Moods

Photographs that help visualizing the look of a shot, location, actor or entire project.

Mysterium-X - Sensor

Mysterium-X is RED Digital Cinema's newest sensor. More information coming soon!



N

Normal / Standard Lens

A normal lens does not have as wide an angle as a , but a shorter than a telephoto lens.



O

Offline Edit

Cutting the into sequences and story lines in low resolution is called offline editing.

Online Edit

Fine cutting the , , adding effects and composites is called online editing.

Ophelia

Ophelia is the nick name for Octamas' Red One No. 420. Red users, especially "early adopters", have an intense relationship with their cameras. Having discovered the Red Ones early on we had to wait impatiently for a long time to have our cameras delivered. Our cameras were originally planned to be used for a feature film project that was inspired by John Everett Millais' painting "Ophelia". Also, William Shakespeare's masterpiece "Hamlet" contains paragraphs that are important to Octamas, plus, the stories of Hamlet and Ophelia partly match those of our cameras.

Original Footage

Exposed film material, or camera tapes or drives that have been recorded on.



P

Pack Shot

The pack shot is a shot of the advertised product that clearly shows its name and packaging. Pack shots should be long enough for the viewer to register and memorize the product.

Perception

The audience's perception is an important point to consider when planning for any film or other artistic or marketing project. Perception can roughly be split into five phases:

1. Introduction: In order to get in touch with an audience it has to notice and start paying attention to the film's content. Therefore, the film needs an activating message or proposition.

2. Reception of Information: Once the audience has noticed the film, the next step is to keep the communication going. The content has to able to be seen, heard or read and therefore be logically structured and manageable.

3. Processing of Information: The content has to be understood by the audience. It is crucial to avoid misconceptions or false information by careful planning.

4. Retention of Information: For the successful conveyance of a message or content it is important for the audience to retain and remember it.

5. Effect: The film should have a positive effect on the audience, which is implemented by an interesting, sympathetic or simply believable message. A successful message motivates the audience to agree with it rather than simply understand it.

Palma3

coming soon
www.palma3.ch

Pitch

A pitch is a competition by production companies for a job. With commercials, for example, the advertising agency will ask a number of production companies to draft a quote and make suggestions regarding locations and key crew. For that purpose, the agency usually hands the companies the treatment and story board for reference.

PL Mount

The Red One is equipped with a PL-Mount which allows the use of cinema lenses. Also, there are Nikon mounts, Leica mounts, the Birger mount etc.

Post Production

The term post production refers to the entire workflow of processing the footage from after the shoot to final , i.e. digitizing, editing, , sometimes inserting special effects etc.

PPM

Abb. for pre-production meeting. During the PPM all important decisions regarding the production are made, normally by the production team, the director, the DoP and the client.

PPM minutes

Meeting minutes record the meeting and lay out all decisions made during the meeting.

Production (Production Procedure)

To start with, the client provides the production company with a brief outlining relevant information for the project. Based on the brief, the production company then comes up with a concept// which is presented to the client in form of a and . Sometimes, an is produced as well. During the presentation directors and DoPs are suggested. The director who gets the job writes a DI and an initial quote is calculated. Only once a script has been written and a story board created a definite budget can be drawn up. On grounds of the script the production company scouts locations, organizes castings, insurance, equipment and contracts crew members. Also, post-production is being coordinated and a pre-production meeting held. Once everything is organized, are issued, and then it's time to shoot. The footage is digitized after each shoot day, and the editor begins to . Once the rough cut is finished and approved, the online and sound edits are created, and, if applicable, effects added. Then, the clients buy-off the film and a master is made.

Props

Props is an abbreviation of "properties" and describes the objects that are used, touched or carried by an actor on screen. It is also a job description for the person responsible for the props on set.



Q

There are no references under Q.



R

RAW

The RAW format aims to record as much information for a picture as possible. The Red One records 12 bit RAW. Original RAW footage often looks unsightly; however, it develops its full beauty in once it has been color corrected. The camera settings are saved as metadata and can be changed in post production non-destructively.

Recording Formats - Red One

4.5K (widescreen), 4K (16:9, 2:1, anamorphic 2:1) - 4K (4096 x 2304) is 4.55 times the resolution of full HD (1920 x 1080) 4K HD (16:9) 3K (16:9, 2:1, anamorphic 2:1) 2K (16:9, 2:1, anamorphic 2:1)

Resolution - Red One

The Red One camera comes with a 12 megapixel CMOS , 24.4mm x 13.7mm (super 35mm).



S

Script

A script is written in the final stage of pre-production. It depicts camera angles, setups, positions, setting etc. A script is essential to a good film or commercial; it is almost impossible to make a good film from a bad script, and on the other hand a good script hardly ever results in a bad film.

Sensor

The centrepiece of the Red One is the super-35mm CMOS Sensor with 12 Megapixels, offering all the possibilities of a selective depth of field. The large 29 sq. micron pixel ensure low noise levels, high dynamic range, and excellent color matching. High dynamic range means that image information in bright areas is retained.

Set

The environment chosen or constructed for a scene or shot.

Set Designer

Designs, plans and organizes the construction of sets.

Set Dressing

The set dresser is responsible for the details in the set design and decorative materials.

Shot List

The shot list is a written description of the shots planned (i.e. angle, frame, action etc.), usually drafted by the director and handed out to key crew members - e.g. DoP, camera operator, camera assistant, audio recordist, make up artists, assistant directors etc. - for quick reference and for the crew to be able to plan ahead.

Showreel

A showreel displays for example a director's, DoP's or editor's work on a DVD or the internet.

Slate

When recording visuals and sound on different devices the clap of the slate marks the frame that can later be used as a reference to sync the sound with the motion track. The slate also conveys information that makes it easier to find and identify any particular shot in post production, particularly when using continuity logs as a reference. This information includes: the production title, the director's name, the DoP's name, the date as well as take-, scene- and roll-/tape-/drive number. Often slates will also differ between day, night, dawn, exterior or interior shoot, motion only shots (MOS) and more. PU in front of the take number means that the take is a recapture of a scene that has already been shot.

Slow Motion

In slow motion, a shot or sequence is slowed down so everything seems to be moving more slowly than in real life. In order to be able to slow footage down smoothly it is necessary to record more than the usual 24 or 25 frames per second, but then play it at normal frame rate. The more frames are recorded, the slower the sequence will appear.

Sound Design

Creating and underlaying sounds and noises to support and enhance the pictures (for example footsteps when a character is seen walking).

Story Board

In a story board each planned shot is drawn up or photographed to help visualize the concept.

Studio

A large room or hall specially intended for filming, often equipped with pre-rigged lights and a sound recording system. Used mostly with blue- or green screens, complicated artificial sets or in order to be weather- and light-independent.

Subtitles

Subtitles are text superimposed onto the picture, usually on the bottom edge. They are mostly used for the translation of foreign language dialogue or to introduce a person or place.

Synopsis

A synopsis summarizes the content of a film or commercial in a few sentences.



T

Treatment

Extensive outline of the story idea. Base for the script.

Time Lapse

In time lapse a shot or sequence is sped up so everything seems to be moving faster than in real life. For time lapse sequences the camera records fewer than the usual 24 or 25 frames per second. If the footage is then played at normal speed it will appear faster. The fewer frames are recorded per second/minute/hour the faster the sequence will appear.

Twist

A twist is a surprising turn of the storyline towards the end of a tale. An unexpected ending, for example in a commercial, makes the spot and hopefully the advertised product memorable to the viewer. Ideally, a commercial's twist highlights the product; if this is neglected, the product will be forgotten no matter how original and creative the twist. A twist that fully focuses on the product is called a product twist.



U

Underwater Housing

For work in or under water the Red One can be put into a special, absolutely waterproof housing.

Unique Selling Proposition: USP

The unique selling proposition of a product is an attribute that distinguishes it from its competitors. An advertiser always looks for the USP of any product and tries to highlight it as much as possible. It is the basis for creative considerations.



V

Voice Over

A voice off screen when the speaker cannot be seen.



W

WEISSCAM HS-2

The WEISSCAM HS-2 is an uncompressed digital Highspeed-Camera developed as a stand-alone camera aiming for the special requirements of cinematographers. It records up to 4000fps at 720p, 2000fps at 1080p and 1500fps at 2K.
The HD stream offers YCbCr in 4:2:2 or 4:4:4 or 12bit RAW within the HD SDI image. The WEISSCAM HS-2 has a full format Super35 CMOS Sensor with a global shutter. By using the Interchangeable Mount System (IMS) from P+S Technics it is possible to attach almost any lens to the camera (PL Mount, Nikon F-Mount, Panavision Mount, etc.) and also change the mount within a few seconds.
Frame Rates
1.500 fps in 2K
Frame Rates
2.000 fps in 1080p
Frame Rates
4.000 fps in 720p
Output Formats
12 bit RAW uncompressed and 10 bit YCC 4:2:2 & RGB 4:4:4
Output
HD SDI single, dual link & Gig E
Feature
Super 35mm format, Global shutter
CMOS imager
Single CMOS sensor
Sensitivity
600 ASA
Dynamic Range
10F-stops
Internal Memory
16 GB
Lens Mount
Interchangeable
Power
24 Volt DC
Feature
Two Stream Camera (RAW and HD)
Feature Stand alone camera

Wide Angle Lens

A wide angle lens has a short focal length and therefore a large field of view. With wide angle lenses the space between objects that are placed in varying distances from the camera appears to be larger than with a normal or telephoto lens, and they have more depth of field. Therefore they are unsuitable for portraits and tend to be used mostly for landscape shots.



X

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Y

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Z

There are no references listed under Z.